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United States of America
September 29, 1779 to February 28, 1781
March 1, 1781 to July 6, 1781
Students and Teachers of US History this is a video of Stanley and Christopher Klos presenting America's Four United Republics Curriculum at the University of Pennsylvania's Wharton School. The December 2015 video was an impromptu capture by a member of the audience of Penn students, professors and guests that numbered about 200.
March 1, 1781
July 6, 1781
July 9, 1781
July 10, 1781
November 4, 1781
November 5, 1781
November 3, 1782
November 4, 1782
November 2, 1783
November 3, 1783
June 3, 1784
November 30, 1784
November 22, 1785
November 23, 1785
June 5, 1786
June 6, 1786
November 13, 1786
February 2, 1787
October 29, 1787
January 22, 1788
March 4, 1789
Samuel Huntington, a son of a Puritan farmer, was born on July 16, 1731. The birth date of July 16th, 1731 differs from the official U.S. Congressional Biography because during his tomb's restoration, a 207 year old plaque was discovered stating:
Governor of the State of Connecticut
was born July 16th AD 1731
and died January 5th AD 1796
aged 64 years
|Samuel Huntington Plaque was discovered|
in his tomb 's renovations in 2003
Samuel Huntington's birthplace, the Huntington Homestead, is located at 36 Huntington Road in Scotland, Connecticut. The house and grounds are open to the public May through October on the first and third Saturdays of each month from 11 a.m. to 3 p.m.
His Excellency Samuel Huntington President is a Man of a Mild, Steady & firm Conduct and of Sound & Methodical Judgment though not a Man of Many Words or very Shining abilities. But upon the Whole is better Suited to Preside than any other Member Now in Congress. In his Dress & Manners, he is very plain, very gentlemanly and truly republican. He is from Connecticut.
He cast his vote against half pay for seven years for officers of the army; was not in favor of recalling Izard from abroad, but voted for the recall of William and Arthur Lee, and did not believe that Jay should be instructed to abandon the free navigation of the Mississippi, if he deemed it necessary. 
Samuel Huntington was elected President of the Continental Congress on September 28, 1779  as a replacement to John Jay, a staunch conservative, who sought and was granted the position of Foreign Minister to Spain. In a September 29, 1779 letter to New York Governor George Clinton former President John Jay approved of Huntington’s election clearly indicating that he did not alienate the Conservation Faction of Congress. Delegate Arthur Lee wrote to Elbridge Gerry a year later about Huntington’s Presidency that, “Toryism is triumphant here. They have displaced every Whig but the President”. By 1780, the son of a Connecticut farmer made the extraordinary transformation from a small town country lawyer to a quite effective U.S. Continental Congress President.
To His Excellency, Benjamin Franklin.
John P. Jones.
joy an hundred fold,
The grand cajolers are themselves cajol'd,
The farce of empire will be finish'd soon,
And each mock monarch dwindle to a loon;
Mock money and mock States shall melt away,
And the mock troops disband for want of pay.
E'en now decisive ruin is prepar'd,
E'en now the heart of Huntington is sear'd.'
Seen or unseen, above, on earth, below,
All things conspire to give the final blow;
Spanish Milled Silver Dollar
May 10, 1775
March 1, 1778
September 1, 1778
March 1, 1779
September 1, 1779
March 18, 1780
© Stan Klos 2008
Continental $5.00 Bill states “This bill entitles the Bearer to receive Five Spanish Milled Dollars,
or the Value there-of in Gold or Silver according to a Resolution of Congress
passed at Philadelphia November 29, 1775.” - Copyright © Stan Klos
Robinson's House in the Highlands, September 26, 1780. Sir: I have the honor to inform Congress that I arrived here yesterday about 12 o'clock on my return from Hartford. Some hours previous to my arrival Major General Arnold went from his quarters which were at this place; and as it was supposed over the river to the garrison at West-point, whether I proceeded myself in order to visit the post. I found General Arnold had not been there during the day, and on my return to his quarters, he was still absent. In the mean time a packet had arrived from Lt. Colonel Jamison announcing the capture of a John Anderson who was endeavoring to go to New York, with the several interesting and important papers mentioned below, all in the hand writing of General Arnold. This was also accompanied with a letter from the prisoner avowing himself to be Major John André Adjt: General of the British army, relating the manner of his capture, and endeavoring to show that he did not come under the description of a spy.
From these several circumstances, and information that the General seemed to be thrown into some degree of agitation on receiving a letter a little time before he went from his quarters, I was led to conclude immediately that he had heard of Major André's captivity, and that he would if possible escape to the enemy, and accordingly took such measures as appeared the most probable to apprehend him. But he had embarked in a barge, and proceeded down the river under a flag to the vulture ship of war, which lay at some miles below Stony and Verplank's points.
He wrote me after he got on board a letter, of which the inclosed is a copy. Major André is not arrived yet, but I hope he is secure and that he will be here today. I have been and am taking proper precautions, which I trust will prove effectual, to prevent the important consequences which this conduct on the part of General Arnold was intended to produce. I do not know the party that took Major André; but it is said, it consisted only of a few militia, who acted in such a manner upon the occasion as does them the highest honor and proves them to be men of great virtue. They were offered, I am informed, a large sum of money for his release, and as many goods as they would demand, but without any effect. Their conduct gives them a just claim to the thanks of their country, and I also hope they will be otherwise rewarded. As soon as I know their names I shall take pleasure in transmitting them to Congress. I have taken such measures with respect to the Gentlemen of General Arnolds family as prudence dictated; but from everything that has hitherto come to my knowledge, I have the greatest reason to believe they are perfectly innocent. I early secured, Joshua Smith, the person mentioned in the close of General Arnolds.
On September 28, 1780 President Huntington Announced that his term had expired according the now 12 state approved Articles of Confederation. It took, however, thirteen states to enact the Constitution of 1777 and the Northern State members, not bound by the Articles, persuaded Samuel Huntington to remain another year. Only North Carolina, from the southern block, supported giving Hunting another year as President with a vote 7-4-1 and passed the following resolution:
The President having informed Congress that one year was elapsed since his election, Resolved, That no rule or practice of the house limits the term for which the President is elected. On the question to agree to this, the yeas and nays being required by Mr. [John] Mathews, So it was resolved in the affirmative. Resolved, That the continuance of the President in office shall not be longer than one year from this day, and that all future elections shall be agreeable to the rule marked out by the Confederation.
I think of all the men of ambition I have ever met with in the course of my peregrinations (which have not been confined within a very narrow compass) S.H. bears away the prize in triumph. So far from his manifesting the least disposition to quit, he seemed to be highly pleased with the opinions of his [you may fill the space as you please] "that he had a right to set there for life. " This is true Republican doctrine. Ay! you may laugh, or get into a passion about it-but I tell you it must be so, because the Greatest Republican in America said so. Damnation seize such Sycophants! Who will sell their consciences to the Devil for the sake of carrying a favorite point? After four hours hard struggle, all we could obtain was, that all future Presidents, should be for elected for one year only, but maugre every exertion, they obtruded their favorite upon us for another year. Could Old Randolph have risen from the Dead, & been in the chair, I wou'd have opposed his continuance, with the same activity & spirit, I did the present person, on the principles of true Republicanism, more especially when I so evidently saw, an elevated station had made a man forget himself, who from being a very modest one, had so strongly imbibed the sweets of power, as to become a very conceited, & ambitious one. Did the man possess abilities for the station, I could have acquiesced with a tolerable degree of content, but when I know he possesses no one requisite for it, I must confess my feelings are egregiously hurt. I think, had almost any other man been in his situation, when he found how extremely disagreeable his continuance in office was, to a number of members, he would have made it a point to have had a new election, & taken his chance, but he verified the Old proverb "A bird in the hand is worth two in the bush."
General Washington to Samuel Huntington, President of Congress.
Robinson House, In The Highlands, September 26, 1780.
To: The President Of Congress.
In the mean time, a packet had arrived from Lieutenant-Colonel Jameson, announcing the capture of a John Anderson, who was endeavouring to go to New York with several interesting and important papers, all in the handwriting of General Arnold. This was also accompanied with a letter from the prisoner, avowing himself to be Major John André, adjutant-general of the British army, relating the manner of his capture, and endeavouring to show that he did not come under the description of a spy. From the several circumstances, and information that the general (Arnold) seemed to be thrown into some degree of agitation on receiving a letter, a little time before he went down from his quarters, I was led to conclude immediately, that he had heard of Major André's captivity, and that he would, if possible, escape to the enemy; and I accordingly took such measures as appeared the most probable, to apprehend him. But he had embarked in a barge, and proceeded down the river under a flag to the Vulture sloop-of-war, which lay some miles below Stony and Verplanck's Points. After he got on board, he wrote to me a letter, of which the enclosed is a copy.
Major André is not arrived yet, but I hope he is secure, and that he will be here to-day. I have been and am taking proper precautions, which I trust will prove effectual, to prevent the important consequences which this conduct on the part of General Arnold was intended to produce. I do not know the party that took Major André, but it is said to have consisted only of militia, who acted in such a manner as does them the highest honour, and proves them to be men of great virtue. They were offered, I am informed, a large sum of money for his release, and as many goods as they would demand, but without any effect. Their conduct gives them a just claim to the thanks of their country, and I also hope they will be otherwise rewarded. As soon as I know their names, I shall take pleasure in transmitting them to Congress.
I have the honour to be, &c.,
The President responded:
I am honored with your Excellency's Despatches of the 26 Instant, which will he laid before Congress in the Morning. (1) We had before received Intelligence from General Greene that General Arnold was gone over to the Enemy. Immediately Orders were given to search & seize his Papers & Effects to be found here, which was speedily executed, but I am not yet advised of what particular Discoveries have been made. With Congratulations on your Return to the Army
The treason of Benedict Arnold hath been a topic of much conversation, and many of his scandalous transactions are brought to light that were before concealed.
Whereas, Congress have received information that John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart, three young volunteer militiamen of the State of New York, did, on the 23d day of September last, intercept Major John André, adjutant-general of the British army, on his return from the American lines, in the character of a spy; and, notwithstanding the large bribes offered them for his release, nobly disdaining to sacrifice their country for the sake of gold, secured and conveyed him to the commanding officer of the district, whereby the dangerous and traitorous conspiracy of Benedict Arnold was brought to light, the insidious designs of the enemy baffled, and the United States rescued from impending danger:
Resolved, That Congress have a high sense of the virtuous and patriotic conduct of the said John Paulding, David Williams, and Isaac Van Wart. In testimony whereof,
Ordered, That each of them receive annually, out of the public treasury, 200 dollars in specie, or an equivalent in the current money of these States, during life; and that the Board of War procure for each of them a silver medal, on one side of which shall be a shield with this inscription: "Fidelity," and on the other the following motto: "Vincit amor patriæ," and forward them to the commander-in-chief, who is requested to present the same, with a copy of this resolution, and the thanks of Congress for their fidelity, and the eminent service they have rendered their country.
Friday, November 3, 1780.
“Congress having received Information from the Honorable the Minister of France, of Inconveniencies & Injuries received by our Allies, resulting from the Abuse the British make of Papers & Clearances they take in American Prizes, by personating the Officers & Commanders named in such Papers, being fully acquainted with the Language & Manners of our Officers & Seamen &c. In Compliance with the request of the Minister of France, Congress have adopted the enclosed Resolution in Order to detect such Abuses in future; and I am to request your Excellency's Attention to the necessary Measures for carrying the same into effectual Execution.”
I enclose your Excellency Copy of a Letter of the 10 Instant, just received from Governor Jefferson, with the Copy of an intercepted Letter (referred to in the Governors) from General Leslie to Lord Cornwallis; which in some Measure discovers the Designs of the Enemy at the Time they landed in Virginia.
persons and properties of the inhabitants....They have, from their situation, borne much of the burthen of the War and have never failed to relieve the distresses of the Army, when properly called upon.
are as repugnant to the principles of the cause in which we are engaged as oppressive to the inhabitants and subversive of that order and discipline which must Characterize every well regulated army.
are as repugnant to the principles of the cause in which we are engaged as oppressive to the inhabitants and subversive of that order and discipline which must Characterize every well regulated army.
"Head Quarters, Totowa, Monday, November 6, 1780. It is with infinite regret the Adjutant General is obliged once more to take notice of the disorderly conduct of the soldiers arising in a great measure from the abuse of passes: the whole country is overspread with straggling soldiers with the most frivolous pretences, under which they commit every species of robbery and plunder. In a ride he took the other day he found soldiers as low as Aquakanung bridge on both sides of the river and as far as he has ever yet gone round the environs of camp the roads and farm houses are full of them. To remedy these evils and to have the army ready for any sudden emergency the General does in most express and positive Terms forbid all but General Officers, and Officers commanding Regiments to grant passes; and not more than eight from a regiment are to be given by the latter in a day, and those only to Soldiers of orderly conduct. 
Ringwood, January 27, 1781.
Dr. Sir: I have the pleasure to inform your Excellency that the measures concerted for quelling the mutiny in the Jersey line were this morning carried into full execution. The mutineers were unexpectedly surrounded and awed into an unconditional surrender with little hesitation and no resistance. Two of the principal actors were executed on the spot, the rest pardoned. The spirit of mutiny seems now to have completely subsided and to have given place to a genuine repentance. This was very far from being the case previous to this step, notwithstanding the apparent submission which the assurances of redress had produced; they still continued insolent and refractory and disobedient to the commands of their officers. A general pardon was promised by Colonel Dayton, on condition of an immediate and full return to duty. This condition was not performed on the part of the mutineers and of course they were not entitled to the benefit of the promise; besides which the existence of the Army called for an example.
General Morgan to General Greene.
Camp, near Cain Creek,January 19, 1781.To: General Greene.
Sir: The troops I have the honour to command have been so fortunate as to obtain a complete victory over a detachment from the British army, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton. The action happened on the 17th instant, about sunrise, at the Cowpens. It perhaps would be well to remark, for the honour of the American arms, that although the progress of this corps was marked with burning and devastation, and although they waged the most cruel warfare, not a man was killed, wounded, or even insulted, after he surrendered. Had not the Britons during this contest received so many lessons of humanity, I should natter myself that this might teach them a little. But I fear they are incorrigible.
To give you a just idea of our operation, it will be necessary to inform you, that on the 14th instant, having received certain intelligence that Lord Cornwallis and Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton were both in motion, and that their movements clearly indicated their intentions of dislodging me, I abandoned my encampment on Grindall's Ford on the Pacolet, and on the 16th, in the evening, took possession of a post, about seven miles from the Cherokee Ford, on Broad river. My former position subjected me at once to the operations of Cornwallis and Tarleton, and in case of a defeat, my retreat might have easily been cut off. My situation at the Cowpens enabled me to improve any advantages I might gain, and to provide better for my own security should I be unfortunate. These reasons induced me to take this post, at the risk of its wearing the face of a retreat.
I received regular intelligence of the enemy's movements from the time they were first in motion. On the evening of the 16th instant they took possession of the ground I had removed from in the morning, distant from the scene of action about twelve miles. An hour before daylight, one of my scouts returned and informed me that Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton had advanced within five miles of our camp. On this information, I hastened to form as good a disposition as circumstances would admit, and from the alacrity of the troops, we were soon prepared to receive them. The light infantry, commanded by Lieutenant-Colonel Howard, and the Virginia Militia, under the command of Major Triplett, were formed on a rising ground, and extended a line in front. The third regiment of dragoons, under Lieutenant-Colonel Washington, were posted at such a distance in their rear as not to be subjected to the line of fire directed at them, and to be so near as to be able to charge the enemy should they be broken. The volunteers of North Carolina, South Carolina, and Georgia, under the command of the brave and valuable Colonel Pickens, were situated to guard the flanks. Major McDowell, of the North Carolina Volunteers, was posted on the right flank in front of the line, one hundred and fifty yards; and Major Cunningham, of the Georgia Volunteers, on the left, at the same distance in front. Colonels Brannon and Thomas, of the South Carolinians, were posted on the right of Major McDowell, and Colonels Hays and McCall, of the same corps, on the left of Major Cunningham. Captains Tate and Buchanan, with the Augusta Riflemen, to support the right of the line.
The enemy drew up in single line of battle, four hundred yards in front of our advanced corps. The first battalion of the 71st regiment was opposed to our right, the 7th regiment to our left, the infantry of the legion to our centre, the light companies on their flank. In front moved two pieces of artillery. Lieutenant-Colonel Tarleton, with his cavalry, was posted in the rear of his line.
The disposition of battle being thus formed, small parties of riflemen were detached to skirmish with the enemy, upon which their whole line moved on with the greatest impetuosity, shouting as they advanced. McDowell and Cunningham gave them a heavy and galling fire, and retreated to the regiments intended for their support. The whole of Colonel Pickens' command then kept up a fire by regiments, retreating agreeably to their orders. When the enemy advanced to our line, they received a well-directed and incessant fire; but their numbers being superior to ours, they gained our flanks, which obliged us to change our position. We retired in good order about fifty paces, formed, advanced on the enemy, and gave them a fortunate volley, which threw them into disorder. Lieutenant-Colonel Howard, observing this, gave orders for the line to charge bayonets, which was done with such address that they fled with the utmost precipitation, leaving their field pieces in our possession. We pushed our advantages so effectually, that they never had an opportunity of rallying, had their intentions been ever so good.
Lieutenant-Colonel Washington, having been informed that Tarleton was cutting down our riflemen on the left, pushed forward, and charged them with such firmness, that, instead of attempting to recover the fate of the day, which one would have expected from an officer of his splendid character, they broke and fled.
The enemy's whole force were now bent solely in providing for their safety in flight—the list of their killed, wounded, and prisoners, will inform you with what effect Tarleton, with the small remains of his cavalry, and a few scattering infantry he had mounted on his waggon horses, made their escape. He was pursued twenty-four miles, but owing to our having taken a wrong trail at first, we never could overtake him.
As I was obliged to move off the field of action in the morning, to secure the prisoners, I cannot be so accurate as to the killed and wounded as I could wish. From the reports of an officer whom I sent to view the ground, there were one hundred non-commissioned officers and privates, and ten commissioned officers, killed, and two hundred rank and file wounded. We have now in our possession five hundred and two non-commissioned officers and privates prisoners, independent of the wounded, and the militia are taking up stragglers continually. Twenty-nine commissioned officers have fallen into our hands. Their rank you will see by an enclosed list. The officers I have paroled, the privates I am conveying by the safest route to Salisbury.
Two standards, two field pieces, thirty-five waggons, a travelling forge, and all their music are ours. Their baggage, which was immense, they have in a great measure destroyed.
Our loss is inconsiderable, which the enclosed return will evince. I have not been able to ascertain Colonel Pickens' loss, but know it to be very small.
From our force being composed of such a variety of corps, a wrong judgment may be formed of our numbers. We fought only eight hundred men, two-thirds of which were militia. The British, with their baggage guard, were not less than one thousand one hundred and fifty, and these veteran troops. Their own officers confess that they fought one thousand and thirty-seven.
Such was the inferiority of our numbers, that our success must be attributed to the justice of our cause and the bravery of our troops. My wishes would induce me to mention the name of every sentinel in the corps I have the honour to command. In justice to the bravery and good conduct of the officers, I have taken the liberty to enclose you a list of their names, from a conviction that you will be pleased to introduce such characters to the world.
Major Giles, my aid, and Captain Brookes, my brigade-major, deserve and have my thanks for their assistance and behaviour on this occasion.
The Baron de Glasbuch, who accompanies Major Giles with these despatches, served with me in the action as a volunteer, and behaved in such a manner as merits your attention.
I am, dear Sir, your obedient servant,Daniel Morgan.
P.S. Our loss was very inconsiderable, not having more than twelve killed and about sixty wounded.
The enemy had ten commissioned officers and upwards of one hundred rank and file killed, two hundred rank and file wounded, and twenty-seven officers and more than five hundred privates which fell into our hands, with two pieces of artillery, two Standards, eight hundred stand of arms, one travelling forge, thirty-five waggons, ten negroes, and upwards of one hundred dragoon horses.
Although our success was complete, we fought only eight hundred men, and were opposed by upwards of one thousand British troops.
During this period Congress began to make headway on reorganizing itself in anticipation of Maryland’s ratification of the Articles of Confederation. A debate on a resolution establishing a department of foreign affairs headed by a secretary charged with managing all diplomatic activities was about to be passed. In early February congress resolved to appoint executive officers to direct the war, navy, and treasury departments. On February 19th, in an important resolution that would result in the stabilization of the post-war economy, Robert Morris was appointed Superintendent of Finance. Morris’ powers were analogous to that of Secretary of the Treasury. Morris’ appointment was a boost of confidence for the states and the national government. Treasury resources were stabilized and began to cash flow enough to enable Washington and his Generals to continue waging what many Americans had believed to be a lost war for freedom only six months earlier.
|Military Commission signed by Samuel Huntington as|
President of the United States in Congress Assembled
Your Excellency will receive herewith enclosed an Act of Congress of the 6 Instant, adopting the report of a Committee; together with Copies of the several Papers referred to in the report.
I am directed to transmit Copies of this report and the several Papers there in mentioned to the Legislatures of the several States, (1) that they may all be informed of the Desires & Endeavours of Congress on so important a Subject, and those particular States which have Claims to the Western Territory, & the State of Maryland may adopt the Measures recommended by Congress in Order to obtain a final ratification of the Articles of Confederation.
Congress, impressed with a Sense of the vast Importance of the Subject, have maturely considered the same, and the result of their Deliberation is contained in the enclosed report, which being full & expressive of their Sentiments upon the Subject; without any additional Obervations: it is to be hoped, and most earnestly desired, that the Wisdom, Generosity & Candour of the Legislatures of the several States, which have it in their Power on the one Hand to remove the Obstacles, and on the other to complete the Confederation, may direct them to such Measures, in Compliance ... Samuel Huntington, President
The delegates of Maryland having taken their seats in Congress with powers to sign the Articles of Confederation: Ordered, That Thursday next [March 1, 1781] be assigned for compleating the Confederation; and that a committee of three be appointed, to consider and report a mode for announcing the same to the public: the members, [Mr. George] Walton, Mr. [James] Madison, Mr. [John] Mathews.
National Collegiate Honor’s Council Partners in the Park Class of 2017 Students at the 2nd Bank of the United States under the portrait of USCA President Samuel Huntington. Sydney is holding-up a Revolutionary War–dated manuscript document signed as President of the Continental Congress, “Sam. Huntington,” May 16, 1780. This is a $6,000 pay order issued to Joseph Borden, commissioner of the Continental Loan Office of New Jersey for clothing. Chris is holding-up a document signed by James Lawrence, and cancelled by Oliver Ellsworth, Jr. for monies owed by the State of Connecticut to Huntington for his service as a delegate to congress and the nation. The note is dated March 11, 1781, which was the 11th day of the Huntington’s service as the first USCA President under the Articles of Confederation. On the verso is of this document is written "Number 1424 Certificate, Saml Huntington Dat 1 Feby, 1781, £ 11-9-4" with a second signature “Saml Huntington.” President Samuel Huntington was the first President to serve under the Articles of Confederation, not John Hanson. – For more information visit our National Park and NCHC Partners in the Park Class of 2017 website
By the Act of Congress herewith enclosed your Excellency will be informed that the Articles of Confederation & perpetual Union between the thirteen United States are formally & finally ratified by all the States.
We are happy to congratulate our Constituents on this important Event, desired by our Friends but dreaded by our Enemies.
Your Excellency's most obedient humble Servant
Samuel Huntington, President
The Congressional Evolution of the United States of America
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